Categories: General

A Quick Overview of COVID 2019 Pandemic

COVID 2019 (Coronavirus)

During the past four weeks, new major pandemic foci of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some without traceable origin, have been recognized and are briskly getting bigger problems in Europe, Middle East, North America, and Asia.

By April 07, 2020, the number of cases of COVID-19 increased drastically worldwide. The COVID-19 is affecting around 209 countries and territories around the world and 2 international conveyances. Therefore, on March 11, 2020, due to the alarming levels of spread and severity, and by the alarming levels of inaction”, the Director-General of the World Health Organization described the COVID-19 situation as a PANDEMIC.

The WHO Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Infectious Hazards (STAG-IH) frequently analyses and updates its risk assessment of coronavirus disease 2019 to make endorsements to the WHO health emergency platform. STAG-IH’s most current official summit on March 12, 2020, comprised an update of the worldwide coronavirus situation and an outline of the inquiries priorities recognized by the WHO Research and Development Blueprint Scientific Advisory Group that met on March 2, 2020, in Geneva, Switzerland, to priorities the endorsements of a previous meeting on COVID-19 investigation held in February 2020.

To overcome the COVID-19, many countries are using a combination of control and mitigation activities with the purpose of postponing major surges of patients and leveling the request for hospital beds, while guarding the most susceptible from infection, including aged individuals and those having comorbidities. The activities to achieve these objectives vary and are depending on national risk valuations that several times include predictable numbers of patients demanding hospitalization and accessibility of hospital beds and ventilation funding.

Approaches at the national level

Most national approaches include varying levels of

  • Contact tracing
  • Self-isolation or quarantine
  • Promotion of public health measures, including
  1. Handwashing
  2. Respiratory etiquette
  3. Social distancing
  • The preparation of healthcare systems for a rush of brutally ill patients who need isolation, care, oxygen, and automatic ventilation;
  • The strengthening of healthcare facility infection prevention and control, with special attention to nursing home facilities; and postponement or cancellation of large-scale public gatherings.

Many lower and middle-income countries call for practical and monetary support to positively and successfully reply to COVID-19, and numerous African, Asian, and Latin American nations are quickly increasing the capacity for PCR testing or coronavirus testing kits for COVID-19.

The virus that causes COVID-19

Depending on more than five hundred sequences of genetics defer to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data, the virus has not floated to noteworthy strain variance and changes in sequences are negligible. Therefore, there is no evidence to tie sequence evidence with transmissibility and virulence of life-threatening (SARS-CoV-2). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has infected health-care workers in China and other countries.

Situation in China

However, in China up till now, where the prevention and control of the infection was taken utterly serious, nosocomial transmission is not a major amplifier of spread in this widespread. The epidemiological data in China suggest that almost 85% of human-to-human spread has occurred in family gatherings. Around 2060 healthcare employees have become diseased, with an absence of major nosocomial outbreaks and some supporting evidence that some healthcare professionals picked up coronavirus in their relatives. These conclusions recommend that close and defenseless exposure is required for spread or transmission by direct contact.  Therefore, by contact with fomites in the instant environment of those with diseases.

The exaggerated finding of the case and contact tracing are deliberated critical by many countries and are being assumed to attempt to detect cases and therefore, to prevent the onward transmission. Therefore, the validation of infection at present comprises of PCR for severe infection. Though many serological diagnostic tests to detect antibodies are being established they need authentication with well describe sera before they are trustworthy for over-all use. However, the role of asymptomatic carriers in spreading infection is not yet entirely understood.

According to the report of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, it is suggested that aged people, mostly those older than 80 years, and an individual with many comorbidities like heart disease, diabetes or respiratory disease are at high risk of serious disease and death.

You may also like to read Worldwide Current Situation of Coronavirus.

Factors associated with the mortality rate

The facts on mortality and causative features from outbreak sites in many countries vary significantly. It looks like to be influenced by such issues as ages of persons, related comorbidities, accessibility of isolation services for acute precaution for patients who need respiratory maintenance, and rush capacity of the healthcare system. Many individuals in healthcare facilities for mature people are at certain risk of serious illness reported in the statement of a series of deaths in a healthcare facility in the USA.

The pandemic of COVID-19 has obviously reached a new stage with fast transmission in countries outside China and all members of society must apprehend and practice procedures for self-defense and for avoiding the transmission of infection to others.

  1. Firstly, many countries want to quickly and vigorously proliferation their preparation, readiness, and response actions based on their nationwide hazard assessment and the four WHO spread scenarios.
  2. Secondly, all countries should contemplate a mixture of response procedures:
  • Case and contact finding
  • Containment or other procedures that objective to delay the onset of patient rushes where possible
  • Actions such as community consciousness
  • Promotion of individual defensive hygiene
  • Preparation of healthcare systems for a rush of harshly cruel patients
  • Stronger infection hindrance and control in health facilities and nursing homes
  • Long-standing care facilities
  • Rescheduling or deletion of comprehensive public gatherings
  1. Thirdly, many countries with no or  first cases of COVID-19 should deliberate active investigation for
  • appropriate case outcome
  • isolate
  • test
  • trace every contact in containment
  • practice social distancing
  1. Fourthly, the lower and middle-income countries that appeal funds from WHO should be fully maintained officially and economically. Monetary funding should be required by many countries and by WHO.
  2. Finally, the research gaps for the COVID-19 should be talked, and are shown in the supplementary board.

You may also like Coronavirus Outbreak , Prevention and Risks .

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