Cardiac muscle is specifically found in the heart. Extremely coordinated contractions of the cardiac muscle push blood into all vessels of the body’s circulatory system.
Characteristics of cardiac muscle
- This is one of three types of chief muscle
- It is an involuntary muscle
Not under the conscious control of a person.
- It is a striated muscle that establishes the chief tissue of the heart
- It produces tissues called myocardium.
- The myocardium produces a thick middle layer that is between the inner layer (the endocardium)outer layer of the heart wall (the epicardium)
- The blood supplied via the circulation of coronary
- It is made up of individual heart muscle cells (which are called cardiomyocytes).
- Synchronized contractions of the cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart pump blood from the ventricles and atria to the blood vessels of the circulatory systems. This mechanism demonstrates the systole (contraction) of the human heart.
Blood supply of cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle cells, contrasting to further tissues in the body, depend on the coronary arteries to transport oxygen and nutrients and eliminate waste products in a straight line. There is not at all time for them to their diffusion.
The similarity to skeletal muscle
- Like skeletal muscle of the body, cardiac muscle of the heart is striated and structured into sarcomeres, having the same banding organization as in a skeletal muscle.
Dissimilarity to skeletal muscle
- Fibers of Cardiac muscle are shorter than fibers of skeletal muscle.
- it typically comprises only one nucleus, which is situated in the central area of the cell.
Cardiac muscle fibers have several mitochondria and myoglobin, for the production of ATP from aerobic metabolism.
Components of heart muscles
- Cardiac muscle cells are expansively branched and these are associated with one another from their ends by the intercalated discs.
- An intercalated disc permits the cells of cardiac muscle to contract in a wave-like pattern with the intention of that heart can slog as a pump.
- Intercalated discs are a portion of the sarcolemma have two structures that are important in the contraction of cardiac muscle:
- Gap junctions
A gap junction creates channels sandwiched between adjacent cardiac muscle fibers that permit the depolarizing current created by the cations to stream from any cardiac muscle cell to the succeeding. This connection is named electric coupling, in the cardiac muscle, it permits the rapid transmission of action potentials of heart and the coordinated contraction of the whole heart. This system of electrically associated cardiac muscle cells generates a functional unit for contraction named a syncytium. The remnants of the intercalated disc are formed of desmosomes.
A desmosome is a structure of the cell that anchors the ends of cardiac muscle fibers collected so the cells can not pull apart throughout the stress of contraction of individual fibers.
It typically comprises only one nucleus, which is situated in the central area of the cell.
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Disorders of the heart muscle
Disorders of the heart muscle are of main importance. These comprise conditions which are produced by a limited blood supply to the muscle comprising angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and many other heart muscle illnesses known as cardiomyopathies.
Sicknesses affecting cardiac muscle are of huge clinical importance,
- These are the important cause of death in developed nations.
Ischemic heart disease
- The greatest common condition that is affecting cardiac muscle is ischemic heart disease in which the blood supply to the heart is reduced.
- In ischemic heart disease, the coronary arteries become narrowed by atherosclerosis.
- If these narrowing’s gradually become severe enough to partially restrict blood flow, the syndrome of angina pectoris may occur. This typically causes chest pain during exertion that is relieved by rest.
- If a coronary artery suddenly becomes much narrowed or completely blocked, interrupting or severely reducing blood flow through the vessel, myocardial infarction or heart attack occurs If the blockage is not relieved promptly by medication, percutaneous coronary intervention, or surgery, then a heart muscle region may become permanently scarred and damaged.
- Heart muscle can also become damaged despite a normal blood supply. The heart muscle may become inflamed in a condition called myocarditis, most commonly caused by a viral infection but sometimes caused by the body’s immune system.
- Heart muscle can also be damaged by drugs such as alcohol, long-standing high blood pressure or hypertension, or persistent abnormal heart racing.
- Some of these conditions are caused by genetic mutations and can be inherited.
- Many of these conditions, if severe enough, can damage the heart so much that the pumping function of the heart is reduced. If the heart is no longer able to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs, this is described as heart failure.
Cardiomyopathy is any of the chief conditions that can disturb your tissues of cardiac muscle. It’s a disorder that makes it very difficult for your normal heart to pump blood easily.
There are several different forms of cardiomyopathy:
- The ventricles of the heart become greater and weaker. This makes it difficult for them to pump the blood, which makes the rest of the heart to work harder to pump sufficient blood to the body.
- The cardiac muscles become thick and enlarged for no obvious reason. It’s typically created in the lower chambers of the heart, called ventricles of the heart.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.
- The tissues of the cardiac muscle of your right ventricle are substituted with more fatty or fiber-rich tissue. This can cause arrhythmia which refers to an irregular heart rate or heart rhythm.
- The ventricles of the heart become very stiff, which inhibits them from filling to the full volume.
Not all the cases of cardiomyopathy show signs and symptoms. Nevertheless, it can at times cause:
- Trouble in breathing, especially when you are exercising
- swollen feet, ankles, abdomen, legs, or neck veins
It’s typically hard to identify the actual cause of cardiomyopathy. But numerous things can raise your danger of developing it, including:
- heavy alcohol consumption
- high blood pressure
- a family history of cardiomyopathy or heart failure
- past heart attacks or heart infections
- use of the certain recreational drug
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