Categories: disorders

Fungal Infections: Risk Factors, Types and Treatment

Fungal Infections

  • In fungal infections, the moist areas are easily targeted by the fungus.
  • It is usually caused by yeast and dermatophytes.
  • The topmost layer of the epidermis
  • Most commonly occur in obese people.
  • Diabetic people are also prone to these infections.
  • No specific signs and symptoms of fungal infections

Are Fungi Closer to Plants or Animals?

Risk factors for fungal infections

General Sign and symptoms

  • Red skin
  • Itchy skin
  • Peeling skin
  • Rash
  • Softening of the skin
  • Blisters
  • Burning and sores
  • Kerion

Kerion

  • A large, painful, inflamed, swollen patch on the scalp that sometimes oozes pus.
  • Kerion may have blisters and crusting and can look like an abscess (a pocket of pus).

Diagnosis

  • Skin scrapings or cultures
  • Wood light examination

Superficial And Cutaneous Fungal Infections

Categories of fungi

  • Yeast
  • Molds
  • Dimorphic
  • Dermatophytes
  • Pneumocystis

Tinea Capitis ( scalp ringworm)

  • Dermatophyte (fungal) infection of the scalp.
  • The dry patch of scale, a patch of hair loss.

Tinea Barbae
Beard Ringworm
(Barber’s Itch)

  • Beard ringworm is a dermatophyte (fungal) infection of the beard area.
  • Kerion may also develop.

Tinea Versicolor

  • Tinea Versicolor is a fungal infection of the topmost layer of the skin causing scaly, discolored patches.
  • This infection is caused by yeast.

Tinea Corporis
Ringworm Of The Body

  • Body ringworm is a dermatophyte (fungal) infection of the face, trunk, arms, and legs.

Tinea Pedis
Athlete’s Foot

  • Dermatophyte (fungal) infection of the feet.
  • Foot sweating results in the accumulation of moisture in the warm areas between the toes that allow fungi to grow.
  • infection may spread from person to person in communal showers and bathrooms or in other moist areas where infected people walk barefoot. People who wear tight shoes are also at risk.

 

Tinea Cruris
Jock Itch

  • Dermatophyte (fungal) infection of the groin.
  • Obese are at risk because their skin folds trap moisture.
  • More common among men.

Tinea Manuum
Ringworm Of The Hand

  • It typically starts as a small patch and gradually becomes larger.
  • Tinea manuum is an itchy rash that may affect one or both hands. It often starts on the palm and may spread to the fingers or back of the hand.
  • less common than tinea pedis.

Tinea Unguium
Onychomycosis
Ringworm Of The Nail

  • fungal infection of the nail.
  • Difficult to treat

Candidiasis

  • Candidiasis is an infection with the yeast
  • Pregnancy, obesity, or the use of antibiotics.
  • Typical areas affected are the lining of the mouth, the groin, the armpits, the spaces between fingers and toes, the nails, and the skin folds of the stomach.

Treatment

  • Anti-fungal creams
  • Anti-fungal shampoo
  • Sometime steroids
  • Anti-fungal sprays
  • Anti-fungal powders
  • Foot and body wash

Amphotericin B in fungal infections

Side effects

Important Points

  • Griseofulvin therapy could be used if an azole is contraindicated.
  • >20% of body surface area [BSA].

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