Categories: disorders

Multiple Sclerosis: Types, Cause, Risk Factors and its Management

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

It is a disabling disease of the human brain and spinal cord. In Multiple sclerosis, the immune system of humans attacks the protective myelin sheath that almost covers nerve fibers and causes the communication difficulties between the brain and the rest of the body. Ultimately, the disease can cause long-lasting damage or worsen the nerves.

The signs and symptoms of Multiple sclerosis differ extensively and be influenced by the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some individuals with severe MS may miss the capability to walk freely or at all, while others may experience long episodes of remission without any novel indications.

There is no treatment for multiple sclerosis. On the other hand, treatments can help quick recovery from further attacks and adjust the course of the disease. It also manages the symptoms.

Types of Multiple sclerosis

  • Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS)
  • Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)
  • Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)
  • Primary progressive MS (PPMS)

Causes of Multiple sclerosis

The reason for multiple sclerosis is still unknown. It is deliberated an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body destroys its own tissues. In this case, this immune system failure destroys the fatty substance that coats and shields the nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord.

The myelin can be linked to the insulation coating on the electrical wires. When the defensive myelin sheath is impaired and nerve fiber is visible, the messages that travel along that nerve may be decelerated or obstructed. The nerve also becomes impaired. Genetic and environmental factors are also responsible for this disease.

Risk factors

These factors may escalate the risk of emerging multiple sclerosis.

  • It can occur at any age of an individual, but it usually affects people between the ages of 17 and 55.
  • Women are more prone than men and have relapsing-remitting MS.
  • Family history. If any of your family members have had MS, then the person is at a higher risk of having the disease.
  • Certain infections. A range of viruses has been related to MS.
  • White people are at the highest risk of developing the disease. People of Asian, African or Native American descent have comparatively the lowest risk.
  • MS is far more common in countries with temperate climates.
  • Vitamin D.The low levels of vitamin D and low exposure to sunlight are related to a higher risk of MS.
  • Autoimmune diseases.The slightly higher risk of developing MS if the patient has thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease.

Signs and symptoms

These may differ greatly from one person to another person and over the sequence of the disease depending on the location of nerve fibers. Symptoms often influence the movement, such as lack of feeling or weakness in one or more limbs or the legs and trunk, the electric-shock feelings that happen with certain neck actions, especially twisting the neck in the forward direction and the tremors or abnormal gait.

Vision problems are also common in MS including the

  • The partial or complete loss of eyesight, associated with the pain during eye movement.
  • Extended double vision problem.
  • Blurred vision.

Other symptoms are

  • Unclear speech
  • Low energy
  • Faintness
  • Tingling or pain in parts of the body
  • Difficulties in the sexual, bowel and bladder function

Complications of Multiple sclerosis

The people with multiple sclerosis may also develop the following problems.

  • Muscle rigidity or spasms
  • Paralysis, usually in the legs
  • Difficulties with bladder, bowel or sexual function
  • Intellectual changes, such as amnesia or mood swings
  • Unhappiness
  • Epilepsy

Treatment of MS

Managing the MS is a continuing process, which begins with the very first warning signs and continuing throughout the disease progression. The access to high quality, complete and interdisciplinary care is important and significant for the quality of life of the patients.

The following steps are important in the management of the MS.

  • Comprehensive care
  • Medications
  • Managing relapses
  • Rehabilitation
  • Complementary and alternative medicines

Comprehensive care

Complex disease always requires complete care. The comprehensive care includes modifying the disease period, treating exacerbations, managing symptoms, promoting functions through rehabilitation and providing emotional strength.


Injectable medications

  • Avonex (interferon beta-1a)
  • Betaseron (interferon beta-1b)
  • Copaxone
  • Extavia (interferon beta-1b)
  • Glatiramer Acetate Injection
  • Glatopa
  • Plegridy (peginterferon beta-1a)
  • Rebif

Oral medications

  • Aubagio (teriflunomide)
  • Gilenya (fingolimod)
  • Mavenclad (cladribine)
  • Mayzent (siponimod)
  • Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate)
  • Vumerity (diroximel fumarate)

Infused medications

  • Lemtrada (alemtuzumab)
  • Novantrone (mitoxantrone)
  • Ocrevus (ocrelizumab)

Managing relapses in Multiple sclerosis

Not all exacerbations need treatment. Mild sensory changes or bursts of low energy that don’t considerably impact the activities can usually be left to get recovered on their own. For severe exacerbations involving the loss of vision, severe faintness or poor stability, for example; which interfere with a person’s freedom of movement, care or overall ability to function. Most of the neurologists mentioned a short course of high-dose corticosteroids to decrease the inflammation and bring the relapse to an end more rapidly. The most common treatment regimen is a three or five-day course of intravenous methylprednisolone or oral prednisone corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are not supposed to have any lasting benefit on the illness.

Rehabilitation in Multiple sclerosis

The aim of a rehabilitation platform is to repair or keep functions vital to everyday life. The rehabilitation can be particularly valuable soon after an exacerbation to help the patient get back on track.

Complementary and alternative medicines

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes an extensive diversity of interventions from diets and supplements to the meditation and which originate from many diverse disciplines and civilizations. Most are deliberated to be outside the territory of orthodox medicine, though others, including the vitamin D, workout, acupuncture, and cooling plans, for example, are instituting their part in complete care through scientific education and clinical judgments. When used in grouping with conventional medication, these interferences are mentioned as “complementary”; when used in its place of conventional medicine, they are referred to as “alternative.” In the United States, the massive popular people incorporate CAM as part of their MS management, most frequently in combination with their approved MS management.

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