Categories: Medicine

Typhoid Fever: Causes, Symptoms, risk factors and Treatment

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is associated with fever caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. It is rare in developed countries. However, it remains a serious health warning in the rising world, specifically for children.

Typhoid fever spreads through filthy food and water or through close interaction with someone who’s infected. Signs and symptoms usually include a high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea.

Most people with typhoid fever feel better within a few days of starting antibiotic treatment, although a small number of them may die of complications. Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they’re only partially effective. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common.

Symptoms of typhoid fever

The symptoms of typhoid fever are:

  • A high temperature that can reach 39 to 40
  • Headache
  • General aches and pains
  • Cough
  • Constipation

As the infection progresses, you may lose your appetite, feel sick, and have a tummy ache and diarrhea. Some people may develop a rash.

If typhoid fever isn’t treated, the symptoms will continue to get worse over the following weeks and the risk of developing potentially fatal complications will increase.

High-risk areas

The areas with the highest rates of typhoid fever are:

  • the Indian subcontinent
  • Africa
  • south and southeast Asia
  • South America

Treatment

The only effective treatment for typhoid is antibiotics. The most commonly used are ciprofloxacin (for non-pregnant adults) and ceftriaxone.

Other than antibiotics, it is important to rehydrate by drinking adequate water.

In more severe cases, where the bowel has become perforated, surgery may be required.

Typhoid antibiotic resistance

As with a number of other bacterial diseases, there is currently concern about the growing resistance of antibiotics to S. Typhi.

This is impacting the choice of drugs available to treat typhoid. In recent years, for example, typhoid has become resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin.

Ciprofloxacin, one of the key medications for typhoid, is also experiencing similar difficulties. Some studies have found Salmonella typhimurium resistance rates to be around 35 percent.

Prevention

In many developing nations, the public health goals that can help prevent and control typhoid fever — safe drinking water, improved sanitation, and adequate medical care — may be difficult to achieve. For that reason, some experts believe that vaccinating high-risk populations is the best way to control typhoid fever.

A vaccine is recommended if you live in or you’re traveling to areas where the risk of getting typhoid fever is high.

Vaccine

Before traveling to a high-risk area, getting vaccinated against typhoid fever is recommended.

This can be achieved by oral medication or a one-off injection:

  • Oral: a live, attenuated vaccine. Consists of 4 tablets, one to be taken every second day, the last of which is taken 1 week before travel.
  • Shot, an inactivated vaccine, administered 2 weeks before travel.

Vaccines are not 100 percent effective and caution should still be exercised when eating and drinking.

Vaccination should not be started if the individual is currently ill or if they are under 6 years of age. Anyone with HIV should not take the live, oral dose.

The vaccine may have adverse effects. One in 100 people will experience a fever. After the oral vaccine, there may be gastrointestinal problems, nausea, and headache. However, severe side effects are rare with either vaccine.

There are two types of typhoid vaccines available, but a more powerful vaccine is still needed. The live, oral version of the vaccine is the strongest of the two. After 3 years, it still protects individuals from infection 73 percent of the time. However, this vaccine has more side effects.

The current vaccines are not always effective, and because typhoid is so prevalent in poorer countries, more research needs to be done to find better ways of preventing its spread.

Wash your hands. Frequent hand-washing in hot, soapy water is the best way to control infection. Wash before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet. Carry an alcohol-based hand sanitizer for times when water isn’t available.

  • Avoid drinking untreated water. Contaminated drinking water is a particular problem in areas where typhoid fever is endemic. For that reason, drink only bottled water or canned or bottled carbonated beverages, wine, and beer. Carbonated bottled water is safer than uncarbonated bottled water is.

Ask for drinks without ice. Use bottled water to brush your teeth, and try not to swallow water in the shower.

  • Avoid raw fruits and vegetables. Because raw produce may have been washed in unsafe water, avoid fruits and vegetables that you can’t peel, especially lettuce. To be absolutely safe, you may want to avoid raw foods entirely.
  • Choose hot foods. Avoid food that’s stored or served at room temperature. Steaming hot foods are best. And although there’s no guarantee that meals served at the finest restaurants are safe, it’s best to avoid food from street vendors — it’s more likely to be contaminated.

Prevent infecting others

If you’re recovering from typhoid fever, these measures can help keep others safe:

  • Take your antibiotics. Follow your doctor’s instructions for taking your antibiotics, and be sure to finish the entire prescription.
  • Wash your hands often. This is the single most important thing you can do to keep from spreading the infection to others. Use hot, soapy water and scrub thoroughly for at least 30 seconds, especially before eating and after using the toilet.
  • Avoid handling food. Avoid preparing food for others until your doctor says you’re no longer contagious. If you work in the foodservice industry or a health care facility, you won’t be allowed to return to work until tests show that you’re no longer shedding typhoid bacteria.

Eliminating typhoid

Even when the symptoms of typhoid have passed, it is still possible to be carrying the bacteria.

This makes it hard to stamp out the disease, because carriers whose symptoms have finished may be less careful when washing food or interacting with others.

People traveling in Africa, South America, and Asia, and India in particular, should be vigilant.

Avoiding infection

Typhoid is spread by contact and ingestion of infected human feces. This can happen through an infected water source or when handling food.

The following are some general rules to follow when traveling to help minimize the chance of typhoid infection:

  • Drink bottled water, preferably carbonated.
  • If bottled water cannot be sourced, ensure water is heated on a rolling boil for at least one minute before consuming.
  • Be wary of eating anything that has been handled by someone else.
  • Avoid eating at street food stands, and only eat food that is still hot.
  • Do not have ice in drinks.
  • Avoid raw fruit and vegetables, peel fruit yourself, and do not eat the peel.

For More Articles Keep Visiting MedsDrive.

View Comments

  • Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to say that I've really loved browsing your blog posts.
    After all I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I'm
    hoping you write again very soon!

  • Why visitors still use to read news papers when in this
    technological globe the whole thing is available on net?

  • Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be at the net the simplest factor to take into accout of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they plainly don't understand about. You managed to hit the nail upon the highest and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , folks can take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thank you|

  • Hey there, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Firefox, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!|

  • Hello, this weekend is nice in support of me, since this occasion i am reading this wonderful informative article here at my house.|

  • When someone writes an piece of writing he/she retains the idea of a user in his/her mind that how a user can understand it. Thus that's why this paragraph is perfect. Thanks!|

Recent Posts

A Quick Overview Of Cardiac Muscle

Cardiac muscle Cardiac muscle is specifically found in the heart. Extremely coordinated contractions of the cardiac muscle push blood into… Read More

6 hours ago

COVID-19: Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation

Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation Limiting face-to-face interaction with people is the best way to decrease the spread of corona… Read More

7 hours ago

A Quick Overview Of Muscular System

Muscular system The muscular system is one of an organ system involving smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows movement of our body to… Read More

1 day ago

A Quick Overview of COVID 2019 Pandemic

COVID 2019 (Coronavirus) During the past four weeks, new major pandemic foci of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some without traceable… Read More

2 days ago

Choking First aid Treatment: The Recommendations

Choking Choking happens when an external piece lodges in the throat,which prevents a person from breathing effectively. In adults, a… Read More

3 days ago

Ivermectin: Dose, Uses, Interactions and Side Effects

Ivermectin (Anti-parasitic drug) Ivermectin is a medicine that is available as an oral tablet, topical cream, and topical lotion. Stromectol… Read More

3 days ago

This website uses cookies.